Bringing Broadband to the Arctic

The Arctic region has largely been left out of the broadband arena in the past due to the high cost of building last-mile broadband infrastructure. The primary broadband available in the region has been provided for decades by Iridium Communications, which provided only low-bandwidth connections capable of supporting satellite phones and low-bandwidth monitoring devices. The lack of broadband looks to be changing as multiple satellite companies are targeting the region as a good business opportunity.

Starlink and OneWeb already have polar-orbiting satellites that can serve the region. In fact, the original OneWeb business plan focused on the Arctic as its first priority due to the lack of competition.

Telesat has negotiated to connect to indigenous communities in the Arctic through a partnership with the Canadian government. The government has already provided some grants and last year announced a financing deal that will invest $690 million in preferred equity and $790 million in loans to enable Telesat Lightspeed to complete its low-orbit satellite constellation. The government will also receive warrants that can be exchanged in the future for additional shares of Telesat stock. This adds to the $400 million provided by the government of Quebec. The low-orbit constellation will begin with 298 satellites positioned to deliver speeds up to a gigabit across Canada.

SES plans to serve the Arctic with a fleet of medium-earth-orbit satellites that should start launching by the end of the year. MEO satellites deploy in orbits higher than 1,200 miles but closer than the geostationary satellites at 22,000 miles above the earth. The biggest challenge for these satellites is finding orbits that avoid the high-energy Van Allen radiation belts. The SES business plan is to provide high-bandwidth connections to remote places and in addition to the Arctic, will be pursuing broadband for cruise ships, cellular towers, and government networks.

The Arctic Satellite Broadband Mission (ASBM) is being built by Northop Grumman and is a joint venture between Inmarsat, the British satellite operator, the Norwegian Ministry of Defense, and the U.S. Air Force. These satellites are aimed at providing cellular telephone service and also supporting the military. Two satellites are scheduled to launch by the end of this year and will have highly elliptical orbits that will vary between 5,000 and 27,000 miles above the earth. The orbits can be changed to avoid radiation storms.

The Russian Satellite Communications Company (RSCC) announced plans to launch four satellites in highly elliptical paths within a few years to serve the far north polar regions. I have to wonder if these plans are on hold due to the severe economic sanctions in place against the country.

Satellite broadband is an awesome solution for places where there are likely to be no alternatives. I understand why rural residents of the U.S. are flocking to Starlink since, for many of them, it’s the only workable broadband solution on the horizon. I continue to wonder how satellite broadband will stay competitive in the lower forty-eight after the many grant-funded networks are finally built. But there will always be homes in the U.S. out of reach of landline networks or customers that don’t like the landline ISPs, so it would not be surprising to see the satellite companies with a small but steady customer base south of the Arctic for the long-haul.

But satellite broadband ought to dominate the Arctic for decades to come. It can bring decent bandwidth to remote places that may never be candidates for building landline networks. It will be an interesting change for the area as it goes from barely connected to fully connected.

The Flood of New Satellite Networks

I wrote a blog a few months ago about SpaceX, Elon Musk’s plan to launch a massive network starting with over 4,400 low-orbit satellites to blanket the world with better broadband. SpaceX has already launched the first few test satellites to test the technology. It seems like a huge logistical undertaking to get that many satellites into orbit and SpaceX is not the only company with plans for satellite broadband. Last year the FCC got applications for approval for almost 9,000 different new communications satellites. Some are geared to provide rural broadband like SpaceX, but others are pursuing IoT connectivity, private voice networks and the creation of space-based backhaul and relay networks.

The following companies are targeting the delivery of broadband:

Boeing. Boeing plans a network of 2,956 satellites that will concentrate on providing broadband to government and commercial customers worldwide. They intend to launch 1,396 satellites within the next six years. This would be the aerospace company’s first foray into being an ISP, but they have experience building communications satellites for over fifty years.

OneWeb. The company is headquartered in Arlington, Virginia and was founded by Greg Wyler. The company would be a direct competitor to SpaceX for rural and residential broadband and plans a network of over 700 satellites. They have arranged launches through Virgin Galactic, the company founded by Richard Branson. The company plans to launch its first satellite next year.

O3b. The company’s name stands for the ‘other 3 billion’ meaning those in the world with no access to broadband today. This company is also owned by Greg Wyler. They already operate a few satellites today that provide broadband to cruise ships and to third-world governments. Their plan is to launch 24 additional satellites in a circular equatorial orbit. Rather than launching a huge number of small satellites they plan an interconnected network of high-capacity satellites.

ViaSat. The company already provides rural broadband today and plans to add an additional 24 satellites at an altitude of about 4,000 miles. The company recently launched a new ViaSat-2 satellite this year to augment the existing broadband satellite service across the western hemisphere. The company is promising speeds of up to 100 Mbps. In addition to targeting rural broadband customers the satellite is targeting broadband delivery to cruise ships and airplanes.

Space Norway. The company wants to launch two satellites that specifically target broadband delivery to the Arctic region in Europe, Asia and Alaska.

The business plans of the following companies vary widely and shows the range of opportunities for space-based communications:

Kepler Communications. This Canadian company headquartered in Toronto is proposing a network of up to 140 tiny satellites the size of a football which will be used to provide private phone connectivity for shipping, transportation fleets and smart agriculture. Rather than providing broadband, the goal is to provide private cellphone networks to companies with widely dispersed fleets and locations.

Theia Holdings. The company is proposing a network of 112 satellites aimed at telemetry and data gathering for services such as weather monitoring, agricultural IoT, natural resource monitoring, general infrastructure monitoring and security systems. The network will consist almost entirely of machine to machine communication.

Telesat Canada. This Canadian company already operates satellites today that provide private voice communications networks for corporate and government customers. The company is launching two new satellites to supplement the 15 already in orbit and has plans for a network consisting of at least 117 satellites. The company’s largest targeted customer is the US Military.

LeoSat MA. The company is planning a worldwide satellite network that can speed a transmission around the globe about 1.5 times faster than terrestrial fiber networks. Their market will be large businesses and governments that need real-time communication around the globe for applications like stock exchanges, business communications, scientific applications and government communications.

Audacy Corp. The company want to provide the first satellite network aimed at providing communications between satellites and spacecraft. Today there is a bandwidth bottleneck between terrestrial earth stations and satellites and Audacy proposes to create a space-only broadband relay network to enable better communications between satellites, making them the first space-based backbone network.