Farm Access to Broadband

The US Department of Agriculture has been measuring computer usage on farms and publishes the results every two years in its Farm Computer Usage and Ownership report. The most recently released report for 2019 was compiled by asking questions to 20,000 farmers. This is a large sample from the more than 2 million farms in the country.

One of the key findings of the report is that 75% of farms reported having access to to the Internet in 2019, up from 73% in 2017. The breakdown of farms by type of connection is as follows:

2017 2019
Satellite 23% 26%
DSL 28% 22%
Cellphone 19% 18%
Cable 16% 16%
Fiber 9% 12%
Dial-up 3% 3%
Other 2% 3%

There are a few notable highlights in these numbers.

  • First, farms are abandoning rural DSL, as are many other customers. If CAF II upgrades had been done right, the DSL category ought to at least be holding even.
  • I also find it surprising that fixed-wireless isn’t listed as a choice. Fixed wireless is now available in many parts of the country. While many WISPs today offer slow broadband speeds, this category of connections should grow as speeds improve significantly over the next few years.
  • It’s a national shame that 3% of farms are still stuck with dial-up.
  • Far too many farms still use their cellphone for Internet access.

The report is also an interesting way to look at general broadband availability in rural America. For example, a few states have a high fiber coverage rate to farms, such as North Dakota (61%), Montana (39%), and South Dakota (36%). Other states have practically no broadband to farms, such as California and Louisiana at 1%, and other states below 5% including Georgia, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina.

The states with the biggest reliance on cellphones for farm broadband include Louisiana (52%), Michigan (37%), and Florida (34%).

The poor penetration rate of real broadband is further evidenced by the way that farmers conduct business. 49% of farmers used a desktop or laptop to conduct business in 2019 while 52% used their cellphone. 24% of farmers buy agricultural inputs over the Internet and only 19% use the Internet to sell their goods.

There has been a lot of press in the last few years talking about how technology is transforming farming. However, these innovations are not coming to farms that are stuck with dial-up, satellite or rural DSL technology.

We’ve seen that better broadband can come to farms by looking at the high fiber coverage of farms with fiber in Montana and the Dakotas. That fiber has been built using a combination of subsidies from the Universal Service Fund and low-cost loans from the USDA and cooperative banks. We know how to fix rural broadband – we just don’t have the national will yet to get it done.