Back in January of this year, the FCC issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in WC Docket No. 22-21 that proposes to change the way that ISPs and carriers report data breach to the FCC and to customers. The proposed new rules would modify some of the requirements of the customer proprietary network information (CPNI) rules that were originally put into place in 2007.
Since the 2007 CPNI order, all fifty states have adopted a version of the CPNI rules as well as rules from federal agencies like the Federal Trade Commission, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Agency, and the Securities Exchange Commission. The FCC is hoping to strengthen the rules on reporting data breaches since it recognizes that data breaches are increasingly important and can be damaging to customers.
The FCC completed a round of initial and reply comments by the end of March 2023, but is not expected to make a final order before the end of this year.
The current FCC rules for data breaches require carriers to notify law enforcement within seven days of a breach using an FCC portal that forwards a report to the Secret Service and the FBI. After a carrier has notified law enforcement, it can opt to notify customers, although that is not mandatory. One of the reasons this docket was initiated is that carriers have kept quiet about some major data breaches. The new rules would require carriers to provide additional information to the FCC and law enforcement. The new requirements also eliminate any waiting period, and carriers would be required to notify law enforcement and customers “without unreasonable delay”. The only exception to rapid customer notification would be if law enforcement asks for a delay.
The FCC is proposing new reporting rules that it says will better protect consumers, increase security, and reduce the impact of future breaches. There was a lot of pushback from carriers in comments to the docket that centered on two primary topics – the definition of what constitutes a data breach, and the requirement of what must be told to customers.
The FCC wants to expand the definition of data breach to include the inadvertent disclosure of customer information. The FCC believes that requiring the disclosure of accidental breaches will incentivize carriers to adopt more strenuous data security practices. Carriers oppose the expanded definition since disclosure would be required even when there is no apparent harm to customers.
Carriers also oppose the quick notification requirements. Carriers argue that it takes time to understand the breadth and depth of a data breach and to determine if any customers were harmed. Carriers also need to be working immediately after discovering breach to contain and stop the problem.
Carriers are opposed to the FCC suggestions of what must be disclosed to customers. The FCC wants to make sure that customer notices include everything needed for customers to react to the breach. Carriers say that assembling the details by customer will take too long and could leave customers open to further problems. Carriers would rather make a quick blanket announcement instead of a detailed notice to specific customers.
One of the interesting nuances of the proposed rules is that there would be two types of notifications required – one for inadvertent leaks and another for what the FCC calls a harms-based notification. This would require a carrier to notify customers based on the specific harm that was caused. Carriers were generally in favor of the harms-based approach but didn’t want to confuse customers by notifying them of every inadvertent breach that doesn’t cause any harm.
Consumer advocates opposed allowing only the harm-based trigger, because it allows a carrier to decide when a breach causes harm. They fear that carriers will under-report harm-based breaches.
These rules would apply to all ISPs and carriers, regardless of size. While it might still be some months before any new rules become effective, small ISPs ought to use this impending change as a reason to review data security practices and the ability to notify customers.