AT&T got prompted to build fiber due to an agreement with the government as part of the approval for the merger with DirecTV. The company agreed in the summer of 2015 to build fiber to pass 12.5 million homes within four years.
AT&T has been in the fiber business for many years. Like all of the big telcos, AT&T built fiber to large businesses over the last couple of decades. AT&T got dragged into the FTTH business in a few markets when it reacted to the Google Fiber overbuild in markets like Atlanta and the North Carolina research triangle. AT&T has been selectively bringing fiber to large apartment complexes for much of the last decade.
In the first few years of the mandated buildout, AT&T seemed to be only halfheartedly going along with the mandated expansion. They claimed to have passed millions of homes with fiber builds, but there was no press or chatter from customers having received AT&T fiber service. For the first few years after the mandate, AT&T was meeting its mandate by counting passed apartment complexes – many which were likely already within range of AT&T fiber.
But it looks like everything changed at AT&T a few years ago and fiber suddenly appeared in pockets of the many cities where AT&T is the incumbent telephone provider. There were several changes in the industry that likely prompted this turnaround at AT&T. First, they won the FirstNet contract to provide modern connectivity to all first responders nationwide. In many cases this requires building new fiber – financed by the federal government. Second, AT&T needs to connect to huge numbers of small cell sites – something that was not predicted in 2015.
It seems that AT&T management looked at those two opportunities and decided that they could best capitalize on the new fiber by adding residential and small businesses to the fiber network. That was a big change at AT&T. They had long refused to follow in the wake of Verizon and their FiOS network. They instead took the path of beefing up urban DSL with their U-verse business where they paired two copper wires to offer DSL speeds as fast as 48 Mbps. I think the company was likely surprised about how quickly that offering became obsolete as cable companies now routinely offer two to four times that speed.
For the past several years AT&T has been losing DSL customers in droves to the cable companies. For example, in the year ending in the third quarter of 2019, AT&T had lost a net of 123,000 broadband customers, even with the big gains during that period for fiber. The company will likely continue to lose DSL customers as copper networks age and the speeds fall further behind cable company offerings. AT&T has been petitioning the FCC to tear down copper wires, particularly in rural areas, further killing the DSL business.
AT&T’s new strategy for building fiber is interesting. They are only building FTTH in small pockets where they already have fiber. That fiber might be there to serve a large business, a school, or a cell tower. AT&T extends fiber for two to four blocks around these fiber hubs, only where construction costs look reasonable. AT&T has a big cost advantage of building fiber cheaply in areas where the company already has copper wires on poles – the new fiber is overlashed to the existing copper wires.
Late last year, AT&T announced they had met their government mandate and were taking a pause in building new fiber in neighborhoods. The company is instead focused in selling where it has fiber and has a goal of a 50% market share in those areas. That’s an aggressive goal when considering that Comcast and Charter are likely their most common competitor.
AT&T fiber must be considered by anybody building a new fiber network. If AT&T is already in the market, they will likely have sewn up small pockets of the community. It also wouldn’t be hard for AT&T to expand these small pockets to become larger, making them a real competitor to a fiber overbuilder. This will be an odd kind of competition where AT&T is on some blocks and not others – almost making an overbuilder have two marketing plans, for the neighborhoods with and without fiber.